Visual Studio For Linux And Mac

Target Linux from Windows via WSL. You can produce Linux binaries on a Windows machine by using the Windows Subsystem for Linux, or WSL. Follow the instructions to Set up WSL on Windows 10. Then, configure it with the Visual Studio extension for Linux. It's okay to put all your built libraries for Windows and Linux into the same folder. Visual Studio Dev Essentials – Get all of the above and more Get all these free tools and services, plus Pluralsight training, Azure credit, downloads, and more – for free.

  1. Visual Studio For Mac Download
  2. Run Visual Studio On Linux
  3. Visual Studio Remote Linux
  4. Visual Studio For Linux And Mac Operating System
  1. Python support is not presently available in Visual Studio for Mac, but is available on Mac and Linux through Visual Studio Code. See questions and answers. Visual Studio 2019 and Visual Studio 2017. Download and run the latest Visual Studio installer.
  2. Build and run code on a remote machine or Windows Subsystem for Linux and browse, edit, and debug from within Visual Studio. Use CMake to target multiple platforms from the comfort of a single IDE. Development applications – Get Started. Components – Visual Studio C core features – Windows Universal C Runtime – Visual C for Linux.

In this tutorial, you configure Visual Studio Code on macOS to use the Clang/LLVM compiler and debugger.

After configuring VS Code, you will compile and debug a simple C++ program in VS Code. This tutorial does not teach you about Clang or the C++ language. For those subjects, there are many good resources available on the Web.

If you have any trouble, feel free to file an issue for this tutorial in the VS Code documentation repository.

Prerequisites

To successfully complete this tutorial, you must do the following:

  1. Install Visual Studio Code on macOS.

  2. Install the C++ extension for VS Code. You can install the C/C++ extension by searching for 'c++' in the Extensions view (⇧⌘X (Windows, Linux Ctrl+Shift+X)).

Ensure Clang is installed

Clang may already be installed on your Mac. To verify that it is, open a macOS Terminal window and enter the following command:

  1. If Clang isn't installed, enter the following command to install the command line developer tools:

Create Hello World

From the macOS Terminal, create an empty folder called projects where you can store all your VS Code projects, then create a subfolder called helloworld, navigate into it, and open VS Code in that folder by entering the following commands:

The code . command opens VS Code in the current working folder, which becomes your 'workspace'. As you go through the tutorial, you will create three files in a .vscode folder in the workspace:

  • tasks.json (compiler build settings)
  • launch.json (debugger settings)
  • c_cpp_properties.json (compiler path and IntelliSense settings)

Add hello world source code file

In the File Explorer title bar, select New File and name the file helloworld.cpp.

Paste in the following source code:

Now press ⌘S (Windows, Linux Ctrl+S) to save the file. Notice that your files are listed in the File Explorer view (⇧⌘E (Windows, Linux Ctrl+Shift+E)) in the side bar of VS Code:

You can also enable Auto Save to automatically save your file changes, by checking Auto Save in the main File menu.

The Activity Bar on the edge of Visual Studio Code lets you open different views such as Search, Source Control, and Run. You'll look at the Run view later in this tutorial. You can find out more about the other views in the VS Code User Interface documentation.

Note: When you save or open a C++ file, you may see a notification from the C/C++ extension about the availability of an Insiders version, which lets you test new features and fixes. You can ignore this notification by selecting the X (Clear Notification).

Explore IntelliSense

In the helloworld.cpp file, hover over vector or string to see type information. After the declaration of the msg variable, start typing msg. as you would when calling a member function. You should immediately see a completion list that shows all the member functions, and a window that shows the type information for the msg object:

You can press the Tab key to insert the selected member. Then, when you add the opening parenthesis, you'll see information about arguments that the function requires.

Build helloworld.cpp

Next, you'll create a tasks.json file to tell VS Code how to build (compile) the program. This task will invoke the Clang C++ compiler to create an executable file from the source code.

It's important to have helloworld.cpp open in the editor because the next step uses the active file in the editor as context to create the build task in the next step.

From the main menu, choose Terminal > Configure Default Build Task. A dropdown will appear listing various predefined build tasks for the compilers that VS Code found on your machine. Choose C/C++ clang++ build active file to build the file that is currently displayed (active) in the editor.

This will create a tasks.json file in the .vscode folder and open it in the editor.

Replace the contents of that file with the following:

The JSON above differs from the default template JSON in the following ways:

  • 'args' is updated to compile with C++17 because our helloworld.cpp uses C++17 language features.
  • Changes the current working directory directive ('cwd') to the folder where helloworld.cpp is.

The command setting specifies the program to run. In this case, 'clang++' is the driver that causes the Clang compiler to expect C++ code and link against the C++ standard library.

The args array specifies the command-line arguments that will be passed to clang++. These arguments must be specified in the order expected by the compiler.

This task tells the C++ compiler to compile the active file (${file}), and create an output file (-o switch) in the current directory (${fileDirname}) with the same name as the active file (${fileBasenameNoExtension}), resulting in helloworld for our example.

Visual studio in linux

The label value is what you will see in the tasks list. Name this whatever you like.

The problemMatcher value selects the output parser to use for finding errors and warnings in the compiler output. For clang++, you'll get the best results if you use the $gcc problem matcher.

The 'isDefault': true value in the group object specifies that this task will be run when you press ⇧⌘B (Windows, Linux Ctrl+Shift+B). This property is for convenience only; if you set it to false, you can still build from the Terminal menu with Terminal > Run Build Task.

Note: You can learn more about task.json variables in the variables reference.

Running the build

  1. Go back to helloworld.cpp. Because we want to build helloworld.cpp it is important that this file be the one that is active in the editor for the next step.

  2. To run the build task that you defined in tasks.json, press ⇧⌘B (Windows, Linux Ctrl+Shift+B) or from the Terminal main menu choose Run Build Task.

  3. When the task starts, you should see the Integrated Terminal window appear below the code editor. After the task completes, the terminal shows output from the compiler that indicates whether the build succeeded or failed. For a successful Clang build, the output looks something like this:

  4. Create a new terminal using the + button and you'll have a new terminal with the helloworld folder as the working directory. Run ls and you should now see the executable helloworld along with the debugging file (helloworld.dSYM).

  5. You can run helloworld in the terminal by typing ./helloworld.

Visual Studio For Linux And Mac

Modifying tasks.json

Visual Studio For Mac Download

You can modify your tasks.json to build multiple C++ files by using an argument like '${workspaceFolder}/*.cpp' instead of ${file}. This will build all .cpp files in your current folder. You can also modify the output filename by replacing '${fileDirname}/${fileBasenameNoExtension}' with a hard-coded filename (for example '${workspaceFolder}/myProgram.out').

Debug helloworld.cpp

Next, you'll create a launch.json file to configure VS Code to launch the LLDB debugger when you press F5 to debug the program.

From the main menu, choose Run > Add Configuration... and then choose C++ (GDB/LLDB).

You'll then see a dropdown for predefined debugging configurations. Choose clang++ build and debug active file.

VS Code creates a launch.json file, opens it in the editor, and builds and runs 'helloworld'. Your launch.json file will look something like this:

The program setting specifies the program you want to debug. Here it is set to the active file folder ${fileDirname} and active filename ${fileBasenameNoExtension}, which if helloworld.cpp is the active file will be helloworld.

By default, the C++ extension won't add any breakpoints to your source code and the stopAtEntry value is set to false.

Change the stopAtEntry value to true to cause the debugger to stop on the main method when you start debugging.

Ensure that the preLaunchTask value matches the label of the build task in the task.json file.

Start a debugging session

  1. Go back to helloworld.cpp so that it is the active file in the editor. This is important because VS Code uses the active file to determine what you want to debug.
  2. Press F5 or from the main menu choose Run > Start Debugging. Before you start stepping through the source code, let's take a moment to notice several changes in the user interface:
  • The Integrated Terminal appears at the bottom of the source code editor. In the Debug Output tab, you see output that indicates the debugger is up and running.

  • The editor highlights the first statement in the main method. This is a breakpoint that the C++ extension automatically sets for you:

  • The Run view on the left shows debugging information. You'll see an example later in the tutorial.

  • At the top of the code editor, a debugging control panel appears. You can move this around the screen by grabbing the dots on the left side.

Mac

Step through the code

Now you're ready to start stepping through the code.

  1. Click or press the Step over icon in the debugging control panel so that the for (const string& word : msg) statement is highlighted.

    The Step Over command skips over all the internal function calls within the vector and string classes that are invoked when the msg variable is created and initialized. Notice the change in the Variables window. The contents of msg are visible because that statement has completed.

  2. Press Step over again to advance to the next statement (skipping over all the internal code that is executed to initialize the loop). Now, the Variables window shows information about the loop variable.

  3. Press Step over again to execute the cout statement. Note As of the March 2019 version of the extension, no output will appear in the DEBUG CONSOLE until the last cout completes.

Set a watch

You might want to keep track of the value of a variable as your program executes. You can do this by setting a watch on the variable.

  1. Place the insertion point inside the loop. In the Watch window, click the plus sign and in the text box, type word, which is the name of the loop variable. Now view the Watch window as you step through the loop.

  2. To quickly view the value of any variable while execution is paused, you can hover over it with the mouse pointer.

C/C++ configuration

For more control over the C/C++ extension, create a c_cpp_properties.json file, which allows you to change settings such as the path to the compiler, include paths, which C++ standard to compile against (such as C++17), and more.

View the C/C++ configuration UI by running the command C/C++: Edit Configurations (UI) from the Command Palette (⇧⌘P (Windows, Linux Ctrl+Shift+P)).

This opens the C/C++ Configurations page.

Visual Studio Code places these settings in .vscode/c_cpp_properties.json. If you open that file directly, it should look something like this:

You only need to modify the Include path setting if your program includes header files that are not in your workspace or the standard library path.

Compiler path

compilerPath is an important configuration setting. The extension uses it to infer the path to the C++ standard library header files. When the extension knows where to find those files, it can provide useful features like smart completions and Go to Definition navigation.

The C/C++ extension attempts to populate compilerPath with the default compiler location based on what it finds on your system. The compilerPath search order is:

  • Your PATH for the names of known compilers. The order the compilers appear in the list depends on your PATH.
  • Then hard-coded XCode paths are searched, such as /Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer/Toolchains/XcodeDefault.xctoolchain/usr/bin/

Mac framework path

On the C/C++ Configuration screen, scroll down and expand Advanced Settings and ensure that Mac framework path points to the system header files. For example: /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/SDKs/MacOSX.sdk/System/Library/Frameworks

Reusing your C++ configuration

VS Code is now configured to use Clang on macOS. The configuration applies to the current workspace. To reuse the configuration, just copy the JSON files to a .vscode folder in a new project folder (workspace) and change the names of the source file(s) and executable as needed.

Troubleshooting

Compiler and linking errors

The most common cause of errors (such as undefined _main, or attempting to link with file built for unknown-unsupported file format, and so on) occurs when helloworld.cpp is not the active file when you start a build or start debugging. This is because the compiler is trying to compile something that isn't source code, like your launch.json, tasks.json, or c_cpp_properties.json file.

Next steps

Visual studio for linux c++
  • Explore the VS Code User Guide.
  • Review the Overview of the C++ extension
  • Create a new workspace, copy your .json files to it, adjust the necessary settings for the new workspace path, program name, and so on, and start coding!
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Run Visual Studio On Linux

Linux support is available in Visual Studio 2017 and later.

You can configure a Linux project to target a remote machine or the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL). For both remote machines and for WSL, you need to set up a remote connection in Visual Studio 2017.

You can configure a Linux project to target a remote machine or the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL). For a remote machine, you need to set up a remote connection in Visual Studio. To connect to WSL, skip ahead to the Connect to WSL section.

When using a remote connection, Visual Studio builds C++ Linux projects on the remote machine. It doesn't matter if it's a physical machine, a VM in the cloud, or WSL.To build the project, Visual Studio copies the source code to your remote Linux computer. Then, the code gets compiled based on Visual Studio settings.

Visual Studio Remote Linux

Note

Visual Studio 2019 version 16.5 and later also supports secure, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 compliant cryptographic connections to Linux systems for remote development. To use a FIPS-compliant connection, follow the steps in Set up FIPS-compliant secure remote Linux development instead.

Set up the SSH server on the remote system

If ssh isn't already set up and running on your Linux system, follow these steps to install it. The examples in this article use Ubuntu 18.04 LTS with OpenSSH server version 7.6. However, the instructions should be the same for any distro using a moderately recent version of OpenSSH.

  1. On the Linux system, install and start the OpenSSH server:

  2. If you’d like the ssh server to start automatically when the system boots, enable it using systemctl:

Visual Studio For Linux And Mac Operating System

Set up the remote connection

  1. In Visual Studio, choose Tools > Options on the menu bar to open the Options dialog. Then select Cross Platform > Connection Manager to open the Connection Manager dialog.

    If you haven't set up a connection in Visual Studio before, when you build your project for the first time, Visual Studio opens the Connection Manager dialog for you.

  2. In the Connection Manager dialog, choose the Add button to add a new connection.

    In either scenario, the Connect to Remote System window is displayed.

  3. Enter the following information:

    EntryDescription
    Host NameName or IP address of your target device
    PortPort that the SSH service is running on, typically 22
    User nameUser to authenticate as
    Authentication typePassword and Private Key are both supported
    PasswordPassword for the entered user name
    Private key filePrivate key file created for ssh connection
    PassphrasePassphrase used with private key selected above

    You can use either a password or a key file and passphrase for authentication. For many development scenarios, password authentication is sufficient, but key files are more secure. If you already have a key pair, it's possible to reuse it. Currently Visual Studio only supports RSA and DSA keys for remote connections.

  4. Choose the Connect button to attempt a connection to the remote computer.

    If the connection succeeds, Visual Studio configures IntelliSense to use the remote headers. For more information, see IntelliSense for headers on remote systems.

    If the connection fails, the entry boxes that need to be changed are outlined in red.

    If you use key files for authentication, make sure the target machine's SSH server is running and configured properly.

Logging for remote connections

You can enable logging to help troubleshoot connection problems. On the menu bar, select Tools > Options. In the Options dialog, select Cross Platform > Logging:

Logs include connections, all commands sent to the remote machine (their text, exit code and execution time), and all output from Visual Studio to the shell. Logging works for any cross-platform CMake project or MSBuild-based Linux project in Visual Studio.

You can configure the output to go to a file or to the Cross Platform Logging pane in the Output window. For MSBuild-based Linux projects, MSBuild commands sent to the remote machine aren't routed to the Output Window because they're emitted out-of-process. Instead, they're logged to a file, with a prefix of 'msbuild_'.

Command-line utility for the Connection Manager

Visual Studio 2019 version 16.5 or later: ConnectionManager.exe is a command-line utility to manage remote development connections outside of Visual Studio. It's useful for tasks such as provisioning a new development machine. Or, you can use it to set up Visual Studio for continuous integration. For examples and a complete reference to the ConnectionManager command, see ConnectionManager reference.

TCP Port Forwarding

Visual Studio's Linux support has a dependency on TCP port forwarding. Rsync and gdbserver are affected if TCP port forwarding is disabled on your remote system. If you're impacted by this dependency, you can upvote this suggestion ticket on Developer Community.

rsync is used by both MSBuild-based Linux projects and CMake projects to copy headers from your remote system to Windows for use by IntelliSense. When you can't enable TCP port forwarding, disable the automatic download of remote headers. To disable it, use Tools > Options > Cross Platform > Connection Manager > Remote Headers IntelliSense Manager. If the remote system doesn't have TCP port forwarding enabled, you'll see this error when the download of remote headers for IntelliSense begins:

rsync is also used by Visual Studio's CMake support to copy source files to the remote system. If you can't enable TCP port forwarding, you can use sftp as your remote copy sources method. sftp is often slower than rsync, but doesn't have a dependency on TCP port forwarding. You can manage your remote copy sources method with the remoteCopySourcesMethod property in the CMake Settings Editor. If TCP port forwarding is disabled on your remote system, you'll see an error in the CMake output window the first time it invokes rsync.

gdbserver can be used for debugging on embedded devices. If you can't enable TCP port forwarding, then you must use gdb for all remote debugging scenarios. gdb is used by default when debugging projects on a remote system.

Connect to WSL

In Visual Studio 2017, you use the same steps to connect to WSL as you use for a remote Linux machine. Use localhost for the Host Name.

Visual Studio 2019 version 16.1 added native support for using C++ with the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL). That means you can build and debug on your local WSL installation directly. You no longer need to add a remote connection or configure SSH. You can find details on how to install WSL here.

To configure your WSL installation to work with Visual Studio, you need the following tools installed: gcc or clang, gdb, make, ninja-build (only required for CMake projects using Visual Studio 2019 version 16.6 or later), rsync, and zip. You can install them on distros that use apt by using this command, which also installs the g++ compiler:

For more information, see Download, install, and set up the Linux workload.

To configure an MSBuild project for WSL, see Configure a Linux project. To configure a CMake project for WSL, see Configure a Linux CMake project. To follow step-by-step instructions for creating a simple console application with WSL, check out this introductory blog post on C++ with Visual Studio 2019 and the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL).

See Also

Configure a Linux project
Configure a Linux CMake project
Deploy, run, and debug your Linux project
Configure CMake debugging sessions